Taking these factors into consideration, the researchers found that athletes in blue and white uniforms had equal chances of winning a contest.
The researchers determined three confounding factors in the previous study.
In color psychology this color gives protection from external emotional stress.
It creates a barrier between itself and the outside world, providing comfort while protecting its emotions and feelings, and hiding its vulnerabilities, insecurities and lack of self confidence. We all use black at various times to hide from the world around us in one way or another.
The color (in case you hadn't already guessed) is red—bright, bright red.
The color black relates to the hidden, the secretive and the unknown, and as a result it creates an air of mystery.
It keeps things bottled up inside, hidden from the world.
Further, white uniforms might be easier to see than blue uniforms, giving the athlete in blue the advantage of anticipating the movements of an opponent in white.
However, Dijkstra and Preenen point out several confounding factors that the previous study did not account for.